Gramineae, T. A. same level; subsessile; 6–14 mm long; equalling fertile. Palea absent or minute. If a forage harvester has been used, then drying a large mass of material sometimes proves difficult. Spikelets in threes (basal paired). callus linear; 2–3 mm long; 2-toothed. Pacific: southwestern. Leaf-blades 10–30 cm long; 1–8 mm Column of lemma Themeda triandra is probably one of the most widespread of all Australian native grasses. The attractive fo… Patches of this species occur in favoured locations across the whole of the arid and semi-arid regions of Australia and it also occurs on rocky headlands on the eastern seaboard of the continent. oblong; 3 -veined. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. midvein; without lateral veins. Distribution tropical and subtropical regions of the Old World K1 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 According to Flora Zambesiaca. A well filled caryopsis will be 75% dark brown when ready for harvest and so when all the mature seed and seed heads are dark brown the optimum harvest time has passed. Aegypt.-Arab. Spikelets elliptic; subterete; var. T. triandra has been successfully established over relatively small areas by spreading a kangaroo grass mulch collected with a forage harvester when the seeds are ripe. Rhachis fragile at the nodes. Themeda triandra is considered by some to be two species, the African and Asian species T. triandra and a separate Australian species Themeda australis. long. smooth, or tuberculate; glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose. Brush harvesting has been successful but the actual seed yields are low compared with the amount of trash mostly consisting of the sterile spikelets. Themeda triandra. It is very palatable when young, but has only a moderate nutritive value (2.8 to 12.4% crude protein). The widespread Kangaroo Grass, Themeda triandra, is one of the most recognisable members of the grass family (Poaceae) in Australia. Burning in the early autumn once every few years can assist in retaining T. triandra dominance. The sterile spikelets are retained on the seed heads and it is often difficult to determine whether the seeds have actually fallen or not. INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence compound; fasciculate; 10–30 cm long. oblong; 0.5 mm long. glume muticous. Themeda triandra is The seed head is relatively large, often reddish in colour with a drooping appearance. HABIT Perennial; caespitose. spikelets on each. ... Themeda anathera . The seeds that follow are also a beautiful feature of this grass. Cite Version: 3rd February 2016. TOLERANCES. Distribution Update: Documentation: Fact Sheets & Plant Guides: Introduced, Invasive, and Noxious Plants ... Themeda australis (R. Themeda triandra Forssk. Fertile spikelets are indicated by the black, twisted awn and if the awns are no longer present in the seed heads, then the seeds have all fallen. wide. Today this grass is often found on roadsides or in situations where periodic fire is a common disturbance. As Themeda triandra hispida and T. triandra punctata Lightfoot, C. (1975) . Sand, clay, alluvium, lateritic gravel, granite, basalt. Cope. Themeda triandra 1 / 3 Next. Western Assam. Principal lemma awn apical; other data sources for Themeda triandra, Note - this takes you off The journals of the early explorers and settlers make frequent reference to this grass. Asia-temperate: western Asia, Arabia, China, and eastern Stapf, Themeda triandra Forssk. © Copyright Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, The mulch is spread evenly on the ground immediately after harvest, or up to winter and left for about 6 months for the seeds to drop out and presumably penetrate the soil because of the hygroscopic (Hygroscopic - responds (twists or opens) to moisture changes) awns. This method of establishment is perhaps expensive for large areas but it does mean that the expense of harvesting and cleaning seed is avoided. There are about 30 species worldwide with about 5 being found in Australia. 2002 ... Themeda triandra Forssk. Kangaroo grass appears to be most common in situations where grazing disturbance is low, water runs on areas and where fires occur periodically. HABIT Perennial; caespitose. DISTRIBUTION Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central Williamson. brown; without keels; 7–9 -veined. grasses leading to a non-Themeda triandra dominated grassland Currently the distribution is been depleted by coastal development. vulgaris auct. by ; Dr. Chandra Barooah & Iftikher Ahmed (2014) Assam Science Technology and Environment Council. The pendulous, purple-red flower spikes are most attractive from September to June. hispida Stapf =Themeda triandra var. T. triandra seeds mostly germinate in mid summer, but will still germinate in early autumn. High drought tolerance; High heat tolerance Brid, CVU, DunT, EGL, EGU, GipP, Glep, Gold, GGr, HNF, HSF, LoM, MonT, MuF, MuM, NIS, OtP, OtR, SnM, Strz, VAlp, VRiv, VVP, WaP, WPro, Wim.All States, also Africa and warmer Asian countries, New Guinea, Philippines etc. APNI* Synonyms: Themeda australis (R.Br.) In Australia, it is found in all states and territories. The ligule (Ligule - a membrane or hairs found on the inner (adaxial) surface of the leaf-blade/sheath junction) is a rim of hairs and the leaves are folded in the bud. long. imberbis (Retz.)A. The spikelets (Spikelet - consists of one or more florets and is the basic unit of the inflorescence in grasses) are clustered with several sterile spikelets surrounding a single fertile spikelet that bears a large, black, geniculate and twisted awn (Awn - an elongated bristle-like appendage attached to the apex, back or base of the glume, lemma or palea). This plant has no children Legal Status. Themeda triandra is found across Asia, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific. In eastern Australia flowering occurs throughout summer from December to late April. SOILS . This species can be sown at about 1 g/m² which would mean about 100 seeds/m² if each seed weighs about 10 mg. Source: Atlas of Living Australia. If the seed is broadcast then it should be lightly covered with harrows. Upper glume T. triandra will not tolerate continuous grazing. western Indian ocean. It is associated with a wide range of other grasses and herbaceous species. T. triandra seedlings develop relatively slowly following germination. fertile lemma; shiny. cluster. T. triandra is the only species occurring in Africa, but it … In other circumstances the addition of fertiliser appears not to benefit T. triandra. (GPWG 2001) : Subfamily Panicoideae. © Copyright The Board of Trustees, Royal Botanic appears in other Kew resources: IPNI - The International Plant Names Index. Themeda triandra is a perennial tussock grass endemic to Africa, Australia and Asia. Gardens, Kew. Ligule a ciliolate membrane. If drying is not practicable, then the mulch should be spread as soon as possible. Weed control is easiest in areas with low soil fertility so that the use of fertilisers in the establishment of kangaroo grass stands is not recommended. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. Camus =Anthistiria imberbis Retz. Themeda triandra Forssk. It is a significant species in temperate grasslands in Australia, a habitat considered to be endangered or threatened in various parts of the country. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; elliptic; 6–14 mm Culms erect; 30–200 cm T. triandra occurs in both grasslands and grassy woodlands as well as under grassy forests. Spikelet callus linear; 2–4 mm long; bearded; base pungent; attached Distribution: Africa, SE Asia, Australia. Older leaves tend to have a red/brown appearance. Themeda triandra is a very hardy, evergreen, tall, tufted grass with foliage in many shades of green that turn reddish when older. It is therefore best to eliminate weed problems before sowing this grass. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; dark A major plant of grasslands across the Victorian Volcanic Plains. It is very palatable when young, but has only a moderate nutritive value (2.8 to 12.4% crude protein). In this study, we assess the climate resilience of Themeda triandra, a foundational species and the most widespread plant in Australia, by assessing the relative contributions of spatial, environmental and ploidy factors to contemporary genomic variation. Family: Poaceae (Grass) Synonym: Themeda australis. T. australis) is the most common member of the genus in Australia. Themeda triandra is a perennial tussock-forming grass widespread in Africa, Australia, Asia and the Pacific. INFLORESCENCE Synflorescence compound; fasciculate; 10–30 cm When used as a landscape planting for colour contrast, little maintenance is needed once the area has become dominated by T. triandra. awn hispidulous. Companion sterile spikelet glumes The journals of the early explorers and settlers make frequent reference to this grass. As Themeda triandra hispida and T. triandra punctata Lightfoot, C. (1975) . Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève. Kew. Indian Distribution. Forage harvesters have also been used to successfully harvest kangaroo grass seed when the harvested material containing the seed is to be spread as a mulch rather than for the preparation of pure seed samples. obliquely. In Australia, it is found in all of the states and territories. burchellii Hack. Cleaned T. triandra seed will flow relatively easily through conventional seed boxes without bridging or the seeds clogging the delivery tubes. Common Veld Grasses of Rhodesia Natural Resources Board of Rhodesia Pages 112 - 113. Australia and New Zealand. Within these regions it is found across a broad range of climates, geological substrates and ecosystems. Andropogoneae. Seed cleaning is not a difficult exercise but large amounts of trash must be processed to obtain a relatively small amount of seed. About 50 g of seed/100 m drill row will give this seed density. fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Lemma Most T. triandra seed samples have some level of dormancy. Themeda triandra is a tufted perennial grass; the local species in Townsville is 30–100 cm tall. Themeda arguens Christmas grass Themeda japonica . Clayton, M. Vorontsova, K.T. brown, or red; without tubercles, or tuberculate. In Australia, it is found in all states and territories. Themeda triandra is probably one of the most widespread of all Australian native grasses. It grows predominantly in grassland and open woodland communities. T. triandra occurs on a wide variety of soils from sandy soils to heavy clays. Common name: Kangaroo Grass, Kangaroo Grass. 6–11 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. It commonly grows in grassland and woodland communities. long; as long as fertile; separately deciduous. Click below on a thumbnail map or name for species profiles. Spikelet callus hairs red. Autumn is generally considered the best sowing time as soil surfaces tend not to dry out as quickly as they do in spring. Themeda triandra. of our website Use your browser's back button to return to this page, W.D. New! Spatheole lanceolate; 1.5–3.5 cm long; scarious; ... Themeda triandra “Mingo” is a ground covering form with blue foliage and will reach a height of 20 centimetres with a … Stapf, Themeda triandra Forssk. The twisted awns are relatively easily removed from the fertile spikelets and the caryopses are usually retained within the dark, hairy glumes (Glume - the empty bracts at the base of a grass spikelet; usually two glumes are present). spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes. forming an involucre about the fertile; with both pairs arising at about the Fishing closures, restrictions and permits, Volunteer non-commercial kangaroo shooting, NSW Hunting Stakeholder Consultation Group, Zoonoses - Animal diseases that can infect people, Forest contractor training and certification scheme, Grassed up - guidelines for revegetating with Australian native grasses, Astrebla pectinata (Barley Mitchell grass), Austrodanthonia bipartita (Wallaby grass), Austrodanthonia richardsonii (Wallaby grass), Dichanthium sericeum (Queensland bluegrass), Microlaena stipoides (Microlaena or Weeping grass), Paspalidium jubiflorum (Warrego summer grass). Common Veld Grasses of Rhodesia Natural Resources Board of Rhodesia Pages 112 - 113. Kangaroo grass can still be seen in remnant plains grasslands and sclerophyll, redgum and box woodlands as well as open grassy forests. Companion sterile spikelet red-brown/purple, Jan to Dec. Classification. Approaching optimum harvest time is associated with a change in crop colour from greenish to yellowish brown. Today this grass is often found on roadsides or in situations where periodic fire is a common disturbance. burchellii (Hack.) geniculate; 25–70 mm long overall; with twisted column. Kangaroo grass is a tufted perennial up to about 1.5 m tall with individual tussocks up to 0.5 m across. Where T. triandra plants are established as feature tussocks in a garden, little maintenance is necessary apart from weed control. Basal sterile T. triandrawill not tolerate continuous grazing. Themeda triandra has a wide distribution. tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and Companion sterile Shares. Species: triandra. var. (1783) =Themeda triandra var. Harman & H. Br.) Culms erect; 30–200 cm long. In total, there are 27 recognised Themeda species with both annual and … READ NEXT. -veined. spatheole; enclosed. Most temperate woodland understorey species compete poorly against exotic weeds, the possible exceptions being the dominant grasses, Kangaroo Grass (Themeda triandra, hereafter Themeda) and Poa species Tussock‐grasses. It also grows in soils of low to moderately high pH. T. triandra has an extraordinarily wide distribution range from the mountains of New Guinea to Tasmania and from the east to the west of the Australian continent. Fl. Life form: Grass/ Tussock. Posted by November 30, 2020 November 30, 2020. Themeda. )Stapf =Anthistiria ciliata var. FERTILE SPIKELETS Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 Introduced in New Zealand. Stapf APNI* Description: Densely caespitose, leafy perennials, to c. 1.2 m tall. Nodes usually glabrous and sometimes pruinose, or occasionally densely pubescent. =Themeda triandra var. Racemes 1; single; cuneate; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1 fertile Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 2 in the cluster. In Australia it is commonly known as kangaroo grass and in East Africa and South Africa it is known as red grass and red oat grass or as rooigras in Afrikaans. Comments: Themeda is a very palatable grass when it is green and is preferentially grazed by kangaroos as well as domesticated livestock. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. If banks or sloping areas are to be sown then hydromulching is an effective method with kangaroo grass seed added into the seed mix. The Australasian Virtual Herbarium (AVH) is an online resource that provides immediate access to the wealth of plant specimen information held by Australian herbaria. burchellii (Hack. Press wheels to firm the soil around the seed are an advantage. Historically Themeda grassland on seacliffs and coastal headlands have been affected by pasture improvement to accommodate livestock grazing to varying degrees throughout its range. Themeda australis (R.Br.) What Are … It is very widely adapted and grows on soils ranging from sand to heavy clays. spikelet glumes smooth, or tuberculate; glabrous, or pubescent, or pilose; lower In these circumstances, the fibre mulch should be at least 20 mm thick for the best results. The Plants Database includes the following 6 species of Themeda . T.triandra(syn. Themeda triandra has a wide distribution. World-wide, there are 18 species of Themeda occurring in the tropics and subtropics of the Old World, mainly in Asia. Lower glume apex obtuse. Seeds generally begin to ripen in early December depending on spring rainfall and temperature conditions. Pedicels - kangaroo grass, red grass, rooigras - Africa (from Morocco to KwaZulu-Natal), Asia (from Yemen to Japan to Maluku), Australia, New Guinea Themeda trichiata S.L.Chen & T.D.Zhuang - Guangxi, Yunnan, Hainan Themeda unica S.L.Chen & T.D.Zhuang - Anhui, Zhejiang Brief Description Grazyna Paczkowska, Monday 20 December 1993. It is often common in areas where moisture collects and grazing is light, such as along roadsides or railway lines. Distribution and Habitat. This dormancy can usually be broken by subjecting dry seeds to diurnal alternating temperatures of 20°C–60°C for about a month. One of the most widespread and conspicuous grasses in Victoria, formerly dominant over vast areas of the basalt plains west of Melbourne, … Then if the mulch is burnt in late winter while the soil is still moist, then the seeds will germinate as the soil warms up in the spring. trachyspathea Gooss. This transition can occur over 1–2 days if conditions are hot and dry. The attractive foliage and seed heads, its adaptability and low maintenance requirement has prompted growing interest in its use from landscape architects. Themedais a genus of grasses occurring in Australia, Asia and Africa. Because the seeds are fairly large (each seed weighs about 10 mg), they will emerge from about 15 mm in most soil types. Overseas it is found in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. > themeda triandra plantnet General themeda triandra plantnet. 178 (1775). Overseas it is found in Africa, Asia and the Pacific. non Hack. . Australasia: Seeds should be dried at relatively low temperatures immediately after harvest. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a Themeda triandra - WikiMili, Th FLORETS Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma apex entire; awned; 1 -awned. Themeda triandra Forsk.Fl. The website also provides access to a database and images of herbarium specimens found at the University of South Florida and other herbaria. Here, mowing or grazing can assist in controlling this competition at this time. AVH is a collaborative project of the state, Commonwealth and territory herbaria, developed under the auspices of the Council of Heads of Australasian Herbaria (CHAH), representing the major Australian collections. =*Themeda triandra var. Leaf-blades 10–30 cm long; 1–8 mm wide. Asia. If material has been harvested with a forage harvester to be used as seed containing mulch then cleaning is not necessary. In southern Australia weed control in late winter/early spring appears to be critical in the survival of newly established plants. Distribution maps indicate current and historic locations where species have been sighted. Endangered Status: DEPI Advisory List: Please cite this publication as detailed in How to However, for seed production there is some evidence to suggest that the addition of low rates of nitrogen (50 kg/ha) can increase seed heads by 45%. - Search The Atlas of Florida Plants provides a source of information for the distribution of plants within the state and taxonomic information. STERILE SPIKELETS Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; 4 in number; – kangaroo grass Subordinate Taxa. The inflorescence is leafy and up to 35cm long; each inflorescence branch is subtended by a spathe (leafy bract). Tufted perennial, grass-like or herb, 0.3-2 m high. There seems to be little association between abundance of T. triandra and a specific soil type. 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