Papyrus makes an awesome paper. Zeus? The effects of Hellenization on the culture of Judaea and first century Judaism and Christianity is not often taught. “Antioch, the Lost City.”  (Online), http://www.neh.gov/news/humanities/2007/antioch. In 285 B.C., a group of 70 to 72 rabbis were commissioned by Ptolemy Philadelphus, to undertake the task of translating the Hebrew Scriptures (the Torah) into Greek. Cuneiform was written on wet clay and then allowed to dry. Initially, the Jews were under the control of the Ptolemies. More women learned to read and white. After about 120 BCE Greek science started to loose its originality. The social structure of Jerusalem was run by the Jewish aristocracy such as the Priests and the High Priests. Max has an MA in Classics, Religion, Philosophy, Behavioral Genetics, a Master of Education, and a BA in Classics, Religion, Philosophy, Evolutionary Psychology. I give you thanks that I am fearfully and wonderfully made! What was the center of the Hellenistic world? All rights reserved. He severely persecuted the Jews, ordering an end to the practice of their religion and decreed that they accept the pagan worship including eating unclean food. What's the point of being able to read and write if you don't know the lingo? Throughout most of history, languages have tended to break off from one another. They were products of the Hellenistic culture. Jason, through bribery, convinced Antiochus IV Epiphanes to appoint him high priest in Jerusalem (a pseudo-high-priest.) when Hellenism was adopted and fostered by the Priestly aristocracy. Today, a single publisher can print millions of books in a single year. Though still fabulously wealthy, Egypt had long since peaked as a cultural agent. Essay Topics Generator Text Summarizing Tool Thesis Generator About. However, the greatest impact and adoption of Hellenism for Judaism was in Egypt where the community became more Greek than Jewish. Luckily, Egypt is very dry. This helps them communicate with their overlords. They largely ignored Hellenism and, under Alexander and the Ptolemie… After the conquests of Alexander and under the government of Ptolemy (who ruled from Alexandria in Egypt), certain government practices were introduced, turning the Jewish way of life toward a more Hellenistic culture. Come and join us as we ponder the Sacred Scriptures, which will lead us on the path into His heart, which, Hellenism is the term used to describe the assimilation of Greek culture into other nations and peoples. Antiochus, however, viewed the situation as rebellion and determined to impose strict Greek practices on the Jews, in particular, Greek worship (Dionysian? Get the unbiased info you need to find the right school. The Maccabean Revolt In 175 BC Antiochus Epiphanes came to power as the Seleucid Ruler with an agenda to expand the empire. The result was that Greek culture, philosophy, art and language were quickly spread across the ancient world. THE CREATOR of the UNIVERSE – IN A LITTLE PIECE OF BREAD?? In Apostolic times, Greek was spoken by both Jew and Gentile. Greeks considered their language and way of life superior to others whom they considered “barbarians.”   Reaction to this was twofold:  the wealthy and educated accepted the ways of Greek culture enthusiastically (the “impious” Jews in 2 Maccabees) and others (those in rural areas) who considered it a threat to their traditional way of life and values. Jews in Palestine were forced by Syrian Greek King Antiochus IV Epiphanes to publically violate Jewish law in 168 BC. Because of Hellenism, there were a variety of religious alternatives, and many different religions were being practiced in Antioch. Hellenism penetrated most deeply into the larger cities. Alexander deliberately pursued Hellenization policies in the communities he conquered. They could not speak Hebrew and therefore, could not read the Scriptures. {{courseNav.course.mDynamicIntFields.lessonCount}} lessons just create an account. Jews made an effort to preserve Hebrew as their main language for literature and religious gatherings. In the summer of 332 B.C.E., Palestine was conquered by Alexander the Great. | 8 Powered by, Greetings to all who love to wander along the paths of the Holy Scriptures! They risked health and sacrificed sexual pleasure to “become one flesh” with the Greek culture. Anyone can earn Though earlier empires made efforts at linguistic unification, none were equipped with a full alphabet like the Greeks had. In his massive study of the Hellenistic period, Peter Green demonstrates that the effects of Hellenism on local cultures in the ancient world operated like a forced cultural veneer over an otherwise healthy and distinct traditional worldview. Hellenization refers to Alexander the Great's practice of bringing Greeks with him on his conquest and installing them as administrators in his growing empire. However, the same could be said of Greece, and though many splendid libraries arose there, none came near the scope of Alexandria. Despite the mixed communities and Greek culture, the Antiochian community showed charity towards the Jewish-Christians from Jerusalem. The result was a pool of data to be analyzed and explained by generation after generation of philosophers, mathematicians and astronomers. The term “Hellenization” was coined to denote the spread of Greek language, culture, and population into the former Persian empire after Alexander’s conquest. The author was one of the first to support Ν. This alphabet had very few characters, making it easier to learn, but it also included vowel sounds, allowing people unfamiliar with Greek to sound out the words. Even papyrus does not last forever; old manuscripts must be replaced with new. Wijngaards, John. As Hellenism spread throughout the Jewish Diaspora, a problem arose for Greek-speaking Jews. For others, their Jewish identity and way of life were thought to be threatened by the Hellenistic culture and cultural assimilation was a great concern in 1 and 2 Maccabees. flashcard sets, {{courseNav.course.topics.length}} chapters | Impressive as a collection of tens of thousands of books might be, it is only a fraction of what your local library holds. Services. You can test out of the An error occurred trying to load this video. The word “Hellenism” means “becoming like Greeks” and is derived from the Greek, As previously stated, all aspects of life were affected by Hellenism and this applied to the Diaspora Jews in Egypt and Palestine. As a member, you'll also get unlimited access to over 83,000 Already registered? The people were sophisticated. Create an account to start this course today. The Greeks even added little accent marks to their writing to make it even easier to read. Though Alexander's empire soon crumbled, the Greek administrators stayed put, and Greek soon became the universal language of the ancient world. and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. By Mary Anne Cronican Hellenism is the term used to describe the assimilation of Greek culture into other nations and peoples. Hellenism is the term generally used by historians to refer to the period from the death of Alexander the Great (323 B.C.E.) Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support. People also wrote on animal skins, and carved into stone. The only downside to papyrus is that it needs to be kept dry. For some purposes the period is extended for a further three and a half centuries, to the move by Constantine the Great of his ”How the Greeks Promoted the Blending of Religions.”, http://www.jesushistory.info/cultural_background_of_christianity.htm. Sirach, 2:6, "You are the salt of the earth" (Mt. The surrounding rural areas were largely spared much of the influence of Hellenism. However, after the battle of Panias in 198 B.C., Israel came under the rule of the Seleucids and their king Antiochus IV. Although Hellenization posed problems in preaching the Gospel, it opened the door to an acceptance of the Gospel by Gentiles. Greek architecture had a major impact on the synagogues and in the governance of the communities. Although Hellenism, which had spread in the 3rd century BCE after Alexander's conquests, was the dominant culture around Judea and the Greek way of life pervaded the area, the Jewish community remained steadfast to their own practices. American Library Association Announces 2010 Winners, Library Closures and Their Impact on the Community. It is also the end of month, near the end of the calendar year, and, for m... Sunday Feb 7, 2016 A Reflection on Luke 5:1-11, N.A.B. Free Essays; Study Hub. Hellenization is a term that is commonly used in describing the spread of the culture of the ancient Greeks as well as, to a smaller degree, the Greek language in particular. First they become different accents, then different dialects, then entirely different languages. “Matthew’s Gospel”. Even today's county libraries usually hold a few hundred thousand books, while the British Library (the largest library in the modern world) holds over 14 million. This philosophy provided the foundation for Hellenism, which was devoted to the supremacy of human beings and human accomplishment. … 5:13). By Sharon Nelsen Today is the last day of the liturgical year. The Greek influence in other nations and cultures is referred to as Hellenistic, especially after the time of the conquests of Alexander the Great in the 4, Alexander established Greek colonies or city-states and military garrisons throughout Asia Minor, Syria-Palestine, Egypt and Mesopotamia. Also, when taking part in the gymnasium sports and activities, they were required to exercise and perform nude—a great violation to Jewish law and practice. Perhaps the best example of this phenomenon was Alexander the Great's empire. It also allows them to share in the knowledge and information available in the empire. Recommended Citation. People who speak the same language get separated somehow and over the years, these groups' languages shift away from each other. What was the importance of Alexandria in Egypt? Many Jews felt their ways to be old-fashioned and were embarrassed by their religious practices in contrast to the sophisticated culture of the Greeks. There are some who claim that the Library of Alexandria consumed nearly all of Egypt's papyrus, making it scarce and expensive in the rest of the ancient world. New York:  Paulist Press, 1997. It is called Hellenization. Published materials here are the property of the authors. Thus, though writing had been invented and refined for almost a thousand years, knowledge was still restricted to people who shared a common language. These city-states were populated with soldiers and civilians from the Greek world. One area where this prevailed and was brought out so well in James Michener’s “The Source,” was the gymnasium. The Hellenization of this concept is that a Greek philosophical understanding of how the will operates was appropriated and integrated into the more biblical one. It became the cradle of Christianity. Trust God and he will help you; make straight your ways and hope in Him. Immediate effects of Hellenistic culture. The population is believed to have been between 500,000 and 600,000. Greek translations of Persian made Zoroastrian ideas more accessible to Jews. That is the wonder of the Library of Alexandria; it collected information from across the known world for hundreds of years. It was a dynamic phenomenon, with the ever-­evolving Hellenistic (“Greek‑like”) culture continually becoming the raw material for new syntheses with other native cultures not yet under its sway. This Hellenization might have gone much further had not Antiochus Epiphanes attempted to substitute pagan worship for Jewish. The work was begun in Alexandria, Egypt where Gentile Greeks were being brought into the Jewish faith. Senior, Donald and John J. Collins, editors. Within 100 years, Hellenism was dominant throughout the Eastern Mediterranean territory including Palestine/Syria, although it should be noted that Judea and the rest of Palestine experienced Greek influence before the time of Alexander. 173 lessons Many were adopting Greek way of life the Jewish community as well as the priests. lessons in math, English, science, history, and more. Coughlin, Christopher A. M., "Effects of Hellenization on the Oral and Written Tradition of the Sefer Yetzirah and the Beginning of the Kabbalah" (1999). The Babylonian Exile is the period of Jewish history in which the people of Judea were forced to leave their historic homeland and were relocated to other parts of the Babylonian Empire. Log in here for access. Discussion and comments are welcome, but always in charity and respect! While his intentions may have simply been to disseminate Greek culture, it is more likely that his policies were pragmatic in nature and intended to aid in the rule of his enormous empire via cultural homogenization. Next we look at four factors that combined to make Alexandria the heart of Hellenistic scholarship: common language, a convenient alphabet, papyrus and climate. Jews of the Diaspora had lived in Antioch since its founding in 300 B.C. Food, clothing (some men adopted Greek dress) and furniture were Greek in style and in name. © copyright 2003-2020 Study.com. to the death of Cleopatra and the incorporation of Egypt in the Roman Empire in 30 B.C.E. Answer: Hellenism is the term used to describe the influence of Greek culture on the peoples the Greek and Roman Empires conquered or interacted with. The Effects of Hellenism on Jewish Culture and Religion. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree, The Hellenistic Period: Definition & History, CLEP Western Civilization I: Study Guide & Test Prep, CLEP Western Civilization II: Study Guide & Test Prep, Western Civilization From 1648 to Today: Certificate Program, Western Civilization 1648 to the Present: Help and Review, Western Civilization Since 1648: Homework Help Resource, HSC Ancient History: Exam Prep & Syllabus, History 301: Historiography & Historical Methods, SAT Subject Test Chemistry: Practice and Study Guide, Political Science 102: American Government. Enrolling in a course lets you earn progress by passing quizzes and exams. Imperial administrators tend to impose their language on the states they govern, and member states, in turn, attempt to learn the imperial language. The both Greeks and Romans structured their buildings using marble Romans modeled Stoicism's influence on Roman and Christian thinking. Baal Shamin?) The closest thing the ancient world had was papyrus. Greek money was in common use after the 5. For the Jews, little of its effects remain. Pottery from Athens reached Judea as early as the 7the century B.C. Working Scholars® Bringing Tuition-Free College to the Community, List some of the wonders that the ancient world produced, Understand the contributions of Alexandrian philosophy, Comprehend the importance of data collection to fields such as mathematics and science during this time. Thus, Egypt had everything going for it: a simple alphabet, a widely spread common language and a fantastic writing material. The Jewish communities of the Diaspora retained only the law and the worship of the synagogue. Others fought against their brother Jews and the Hellenization of their people (1 Maccabees). This lecture begins by examining the spread of the Greek language and alphabet during the Hellenistic period and noting the implications of a universal language. Visit the History 101: Western Civilization I page to learn more. Ex. Biblical Insights From Ordinary Catholics, (Comments from Anonymous sources will be reviewed before posting. Alexandria played a role in all of these fields, dutifully recording the progress of the western world. Watermark theme. 16 chapters | Well, what can you write on? By so doing he brought on the Maccabean revolt, which bade fair to sweep the new influence off the field. They measured the earth, they came up with models of the universe, and they established many of the rules of mathematics we still use today. It is not the purpose here to settle any … All of this progress would have been impossible without reference to centuries of data, collected from points all over the world. Antioch in Syria was a large, cosmopolitan commercial city. Yet, there is a force that counteracts this natural tendency, and that is an empire. Antiochus, upon his return, rescued Menelaus. Jews were encouraged to take part in sports and activities in the gymnasium. In order to understand what Hellenization is, and how it affected the growth and life of the early church, you need to step way back in time (nearly 2400 years) to a (seemingly) backwater kingdom on the northern end of the … How did the Hellenistic kingdoms spread Greek culture? Nowhere was this vastly expanding complex of information more visible than in the sheer massiveness of the Library of Alexandria, which boasted a collection of tens of thousands of works in a time when every letter was written by hand. 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